Indonesian Middle-class Opposition in the 1990s

The New Order regime achieved a hegemonic status on the basis of the extra-ordinary political violence in 1965– 6, and the continued reproduction of widespread fear in its protracted aftermath. That massive violence and subsequent terrorism provided the fundamental basis for sustained ‘political stability’ and successful economic development. Ironically, both successes increasingly undermined their own basis. A new generation of middle classes and industrial workers has emerged.

Heryanto, Ariel (1996) “Indonesian Middle-class Opposition in the 1990s”, in Political Oppositions in Industrialising Asia, Garry Rodan (ed.), London and New York: Routledge, pp. 241-271.

keywords: bans, labour, legitimacy, media, middle class, New Order, opposition, scandal


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