“The last new factor here is that as these classes continue to form and the conflict between them increases, there exists no clear and effective institution for free and peaceful mediation or arbitration between them. This is largely a function of Indonesia’s political history. Quite simply the state has been too dominant for too long, with President Suharto alone at the centre. Today, the only thing everyone feels certain about is that this is Suharto’s last term. The result of this lack of an effective mechanism is that most conflicts in Indonesia have been resolved either through token ‘consensus’ or violence.”
Heryanto, Ariel (1994) “A Class Act”, Far Eastern Economic Review, June 16: 30.
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